Wednesday, December 26, 2007

Pactul de craciun

The "Christmas truce" is a term used to describe the brief unofficial cessation of hostilities that occurred between German and British troops stationed on the Western Front of World War I during Christmas 1914. The truce began on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1914, when German troops began decorating the area around their trenches in the region of Ypres, Belgium, for Christmas. They began by placing candles on trees, then continued the celebration by singing Christmas carols, most notably Stille Nacht (Silent Night). The British troops in the trenches across from them responded by singing English carols.

The two sides continued by shouting Christmas greetings to each other. Soon thereafter, there were calls for visits across the "No Man's Land" where small gifts were exchanged — whisky, jam, cigars, chocolate, and the like. The artillery in the region fell silent that night. The truce also allowed a breathing spell where recently-fallen soldiers could be brought back behind their lines by burial parties. Proper burials took place as soldiers from both sides mourned the dead together and paid their respects. At one funeral in No Man's Land, soldiers from both sides gathered and read a passage from the 23rd Psalm.
The truce spread to other areas of the lines, and there are many stories of football matches between the opposing forces. The film Joyeux Noël suggests that letters sent home from both British and German soldiers related that the score was 3-2 in favour of the Germans.
In many sectors, the truce lasted through Christmas night, but in some areas, it continued until New Year's Day.
The truce occurred in spite of opposition at higher levels of the military. Earlier in the autumn, a call by Pope Benedict XV for an official truce between the warring governments had been ignored.

British commanders Sir John French and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien vowed that no such truce would be allowed again. (However, both had left command before Christmas 1915.) In all of the following years of the war, artillery bombardments were ordered on Christmas Eve to ensure that there were no further lulls in the combat. Troops were also rotated through various sectors of the front to prevent them from becoming overly familiar with the enemy. Despite those measures, there were a few friendly encounters between enemy soldiers, but on a much smaller scale than the previous year.

During the first two years after the lines of the Western Front stabilized, other situations of informal armistice (i.e. armistice not imposed by high command), were recognized by both sides. According to anecdotes, inexperienced British commanders were astonished to find British and German forces both exposing themselves above the trench line within clear range of enemy guns. Artillery was often fired at precise points, at precise times, to avoid enemy casualties by both sides. Situations of deliberate damping of hostilities also occurred by some accounts, e.g. a volley of gunfire being exchanged after a misplaced mortar hit the British line, after which a German soldier shouted an apology to British forces, effectively stopping a hostile exchange of gunfire.
The Christmas Truce has often been characterized as the last "twitch" of the nineteenth century: the last moment when, in war, two sides would meet each other in proper and mutual respect; when they would greet each other with kindness to show that — in spite of the horrible turn of events that had unfolded — they were still honorable and respectful soldiers of war.

On 21 November 2005, the last remaining Allied veteran of the truce, Alfred Anderson, died in Newtyle, Scotland at the age of 109.

On November 7 2006, singer Chris de Burgh paid £14,400 at Bonhams auction house for an original 10 page letter from an unknown British soldier that records events and incidents with the Germans on that night describing "the most memorable Christmas I've ever spent".

The letter begins:

This will be the most memorable Christmas I've ever spent or likely to spend: since about tea time yesterday I don't think theres been a shot fired on either side up to now. Last night turned a very clear frost moonlight night, so soon after dusk we had some decent fires going and had a few carols and songs. The Germans commenced by placing lights all along the edge of their trenches and coming over to us — wishing us a Happy Christmas etc. They also gave us a few songs etc. so we had quite a social party. Several of them can speak English very well so we had a few conversations. Some of our chaps went to over to their lines. I think theyve all come back bar one from 'E' Co. They no doubt kept him as a souvenir. In spite of our fires etc. it was terribly cold and a job to sleep between look out duties, which are two hours in every six. First thing this morning it was very foggy. So we stood to arms a little longer than usual. A few of us that were lucky could go to Holy Communion early this morning. It was celebrated in a ruined farm about 500 yds behind us. I unfortunately couldn't go. There must be something in the spirit of Christmas as to day we are all on top of our trenches running about. Whereas other days we have to keep our heads well down. We had breakfast about 8.0 which went down alright especially some cocoa we made. We also had some of the post this morning. I had a parcel from B. G's Lace Dept containing a sweater, smokes, under clothes etc. We also had a card from the Queen, which I am sending back to you to look after please. After breakfast we had a game of football at the back of our trenches! We've had a few Germans over to see us this morning. They also sent a party over to bury a sniper we shot in the week. He was about a 100 yds from our trench. A few of our fellows went out and helped to bury him. About 10.30 we had a short church parade the morning service etc. held in the trench. How we did sing. 'O come all ye faithful. And While shepherds watched their flocks by night' were the hymns we had. At present we are cooking our Christmas Dinner! so will finish this letter later. Dinner is over! and well we enjoyed it. Our dinner party started off with fried bacon and dip-bread: followed by hot Xmas Pudding. I had a mascot in my piece. Next item on the menu was muscatels and almonds, oranges, bananas, chocolate etc followed by cocoa and smokes. You can guess we thought of the dinners at home. Just before dinner I had the pleasure of shaking hands with several Germans: a party of them came 1/2way over to us so several of us went out to them. I exchanged one of my balaclavas for a hat. I've also got a button off one of their tunics. We also exchanged smokes etc. and had a decent chat. They say they won't fire tomorrow if we don't so I suppose we shall get a bit of a holiday — perhaps. After exchanging autographs and them wishing us a Happy New Year we departed and came back and had our dinner. We can hardly believe that we've been firing at them for the last week or two — it all seems so strange. At present its freezing hard and everything is covered with ice…

The letter ends:

There are plenty of huge shell holes in front of our trenches, also pieces of shrapnel to be found. I never expected to shake hands with Germans between the firing lines on Christmas Day and I don't suppose you thought of us doing so. So after a fashion we've enjoyed? our Christmas. Hoping you spend a happy time also George Boy as well. How we thought of England during the day. Kind regards to all the neighbours. With much love from Boy.

Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Another Year, Another Christmas

1. Pentru cei cuprinsi de febra Craciunului si de cadouri, de goana dupa ele, de magazinele care fac unique individuals look like everyone else, Sarbatori Fericite si cat mai imbelsugate in cadouri.

2. Pentru cei mai spirituali sau mai mushy si emotivi, Sarbatori fericite si pline de iubire, iertare si togetherness and all that yadda yadda.

Pentru mine, this is the best Christmas ever. :)

Sunday, December 23, 2007

Noi, Martienii

<Sci­en­tists are re­port­ing that the mo­lec­u­lar build­ing blocks of life formed on Mars long ago—find­ings that sug­gest these mo­le­cules could form on any cold, rocky pla­net.

Or­gan­ic molecules, con­tain­ing car­bon and hy­dro­gen, are the ma­jor com­po­nents of all Earthly life. In a new stu­dy, re­search­ers with the Car­ne­gie In­sti­tu­tion in Wash­ing­ton, D.C. an­a­lyzed or­gan­ic com­pounds in a Mar­tian me­te­or­ite. Sci­en­tists had pre­vi­ously spec­u­lat­ed that these might have land­ed on the red plan­et thanks to me­te­or­ite im­pacts there. The new study in­stead con­clud­ed that the ma­te­ri­als probably formed on Mars it­self, pos­sibly as a re­sult of vol­can­ic erup­tions.

The find­ings “show that vol­can­ic ac­ti­vity in a freez­ing cli­mate can pro­duce or­gan­ic com­pounds,” said the in­sti­tu­tion’s Hans Amund­sen, one of the re­search­ers. “This im­plies that build­ing blocks of life can form on cold rocky plan­ets through­out the Un­iverse.”

The in­ves­ti­ga­tors com­pared the me­te­or­ite, called Al­lan Hills 84001, with rocks from Sval­bard, Nor­way. These oc­cur in vol­ca­noes that erupted in a freez­ing Arc­tic cli­mate about a mil­lion years ago, pos­sibly mim­ick­ing con­di­tions on early Mars, the sci­en­tists said.“Or­gan­ic ma­te­ri­al oc­curs with­in ti­ny spheres of car­bonate min­er­als in both the Mar­tian and Earth rocks,” said An­drew Steele, lead au­thor of the stu­dy. The sci­en­tists, he added, found the or­gan­ic ma­te­ri­al in close as­so­ci­a­tion with a min­er­al called mag­netite—“the key to un­der­stand­ing how these com­pounds formed.”

When ma­te­ri­al blast­ed from Sval­bard vol­ca­noes cooled off, mag­net­ite acted as a cat­a­lyst, or chem­i­cal in­stiga­tor, for the forma­t­ion of or­gan­ic com­pounds from flu­ids rich in car­bon di­ox­ide and wa­ter, said the re­search­ers. “The si­m­i­lar as­socia­t­ion of car­bonate, mag­net­ite and or­gan­ic ma­te­ri­al in the Mar­tian me­te­or­ite... is very com­pelling,” they added in an an­nounce­ment of their find­ings Tues­day. “This is the first study to show that Mars is ca­pa­ble of form­ing or­gan­ic com­pounds at all.” The study is pub­lished in the Sep­tem­ber is­sue of the re­search jour­nal Me­te­or­it­ic & Plan­e­tary Sci­ence.
Steele said the work “sets the stage for the Mars Sci­ence Lab­o­r­a­to­ry mis­sion in 2009”—a NASA rov­er de­signed to help as­sess wheth­er Mars ev­er could, or can, sup­port mi­cro­bi­al life. One of its goals is to iden­ti­fy or­gan­ic com­pounds and their sources, said Steele, who i
s part of the mis­sion team. “We know that they are there. We just have to find them.”>

Acest articol, de pe, vine in sustinerea unei teorii din ce in ce mai populare in lumea stiintifica. Unul dintre raspunsurile mai neobisnuite la intrebarea "cum a luat nastere viata pe Pamant?" este cel al panspermiei, care admite ca raspuns faptul ca viata s-a nascut de fapt pe Marte, cand aceasta planeta era mai tanara (acum 3 miliarde de ani), mai calda si cu apa in stare lichida. Dupa aceea, "aschii" din Marte au fost spulberate in spatiu ca urmare a impactului cu meteoriti iar unele dintre aceste aschii, devenite meteoriti, au ajuns in cele din urma pe Pamant, planeta cu conditii extrem de propice dezvoltarii vietii - mult mai bune decat cele de pe un Marte care incepea deja sa se schimbe catre un corp ceresc desertic, extrem de rece si lipsit de apa. Aceasta teorie e argumentata prin lipsa de dovezi solide, in momentul de fata, despre originea vietii pe Pamant, sugerand ca atata timp cat nu am gasit dovezi ce ar indica cum anume s-a nascut viata pe Terra, este rezonabil sa presupunem ca a luat nastere altundeva - iar Marte e un exemplu.
Articolul de fata sustine, oarecum mai modest, ca moleculele organice necesare formarii vietii provin de pe planeta rosie. Cu toate acestea, chiar si dovezile aduse de meteoritul AH80041 sugereaza ca pana la urma, chiar daca Pamantul era ideal pentru dezvolatrea vietii, aceasta s-a dezvoltat aici impulsionata sau chiar creeata de Marte.
Si daca teoria asta are dreptate, inseamna ca suntem cu totii martieni :) .